The Role of Materials in Manufacturing Processes and Products: An Overview by Edwards and Endean
Manufacturing with Materials: A Comprehensive Guide
Manufacturing is the process of transforming raw materials into useful products that meet the needs and demands of customers. Manufacturing involves various activities such as design, engineering, production, quality control, distribution, and maintenance. Manufacturing is one of the most important sectors of the economy, as it contributes to the creation of wealth, employment, innovation, and competitiveness.
manufacturing with materials edwards pdf 12
However, manufacturing is also facing many challenges in the 21st century, such as increasing global competition, rising customer expectations, environmental regulations, resource scarcity, and technological changes. To overcome these challenges, manufacturers need to adopt new strategies and methods that can improve their efficiency, quality, flexibility, and sustainability. One of these strategies is manufacturing with materials.
In this article, we will provide a comprehensive guide on manufacturing with materials. We will explain what manufacturing with materials is, why it is important, how it is done, what are its applications, and what are its future trends. We will also answer some common questions that you may have about manufacturing with materials. By the end of this article, you will have a better understanding of manufacturing with materials and how it can benefit your business.
What is Manufacturing with Materials?
Manufacturing with materials is a concept that emphasizes the role of materials in manufacturing processes and products. Materials are not just passive inputs that are used to make products; they are active agents that influence the design, performance, functionality, cost, quality, reliability, durability, safety, aesthetics, and environmental impact of products.
Manufacturing with materials involves selecting the right materials for a specific product or application; processing the materials into different shapes, sizes, forms, and structures; testing the materials for their properties and performance; characterizing the materials for their microstructure and behavior; and optimizing the materials for their functionality and sustainability.
Manufacturing with materials requires a multidisciplinary approach that integrates knowledge from various fields such as materials science, engineering, physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, computer science, economics, management, and social sciences. Manufacturing with materials also requires collaboration among various stakeholders such as material suppliers, manufacturers, customers, regulators, researchers, educators, and society.
Why is Manufacturing with Materials Important?
Manufacturing with materials is important because it can provide many benefits for manufacturers and society. Some of these benefits are:
Improved product quality: By selecting the right materials for a product or application; processing them in an optimal way; testing them for their properties and performance; characterizing them for their microstructure and behavior; and optimizing them for their functionality and sustainability; manufacturers can improve the quality of their products in terms of accuracy, consistency, precision, repeatability, robustness, and compliance with standards and specifications.
Enhanced product performance: By using materials that have superior properties and performance; such as strength, stiffness, hardness, toughness, ductility, elasticity, fatigue resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, optical properties, magnetic properties, and biocompatibility; manufacturers can enhance the performance of their products in terms of functionality, efficiency, durability, reliability, safety, and aesthetics.
Reduced product cost: By using materials that are abundant, available, affordable, and recyclable; processing them in a cost-effective way; testing them in a reliable and accurate way; characterizing them in a fast and simple way; and optimizing them for their minimal use and waste; manufacturers can reduce the cost of their products in terms of material consumption, energy consumption, labor cost, equipment cost, maintenance cost, and disposal cost.
Increased product diversity: By using materials that have different types, forms, structures, and compositions; processing them in a flexible and versatile way; testing them in a comprehensive and diverse way; characterizing them in a detailed and complex way; and optimizing them for their multiple functions and applications; manufacturers can increase the diversity of their products in terms of shape, size, color, texture, pattern, and design.
Improved product sustainability: By using materials that are renewable, biodegradable, recyclable, and environmentally friendly; processing them in a clean and green way; testing them in a safe and ethical way; characterizing them in a transparent and accountable way; and optimizing them for their reduced environmental impact and social responsibility; manufacturers can improve the sustainability of their products in terms of resource efficiency, emission reduction, waste management, life cycle assessment, and stakeholder engagement.
How is Manufacturing with Materials Done?
Manufacturing with materials is done by following a systematic process that consists of five main steps: material selection, material processing, material testing, material characterization, and material performance. Each step involves different activities, techniques, and tools that are described below.
Material selection is the first step of manufacturing with materials. It involves choosing the most suitable materials for a specific product or application based on various criteria such as functional requirements, design constraints, cost factors, availability factors, and environmental factors.
Material selection can be done by using different methods such as material indices, material property charts, material selection software, material databases, and material experts.
Material processing is the second step of manufacturing with materials. It involves transforming the selected materials into different shapes, sizes, forms, and structures that are required for the product or application.
Material processing can be done by using different techniques such as casting, forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing, machining, welding, soldering, brazing, adhesive bonding, fastening, molding, forming, cutting, drilling, milling, turning, grinding, polishing, coating, plating, etching, printing, and additive manufacturing.
Material testing is the third step of manufacturing with materials. It involves measuring the properties and performance of the processed materials to ensure that they meet the specifications and standards for the product or application.
Material testing can be done by using different instruments such as tensile testers, hardness testers, impact testers, fatigue testers, wear testers, corrosion testers, thermal analyzers, electrical meters, optical microscopes, spectrometers, and scanners.
Material characterization is the fourth step of manufacturing with materials. It involves analyzing the microstructure and behavior of the processed materials to understand how they affect the properties and performance of the product or application.
Material characterization can be done by using different tools such as scanning electron microscopes (SEMs), transmission electron microscopes (TEMs), atomic force microscopes (AFMs), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and computer simulations.
Material performance is the fifth step of manufacturing with materials. It involves evaluating the functionality and sustainability of the product or application that is made from the processed materials.
Material performance can be done by using different methods such as function analysis system technique (FAST), quality function deployment (QFD), failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), design for six sigma (DFSS), design for environment (DFE), and design for assembly (DFA).
What are the Applications of Manufacturing with Materials?
Manufacturing with materials has many applications in various industry sectors and products. Some of these applications are:
Aerospace and defense
Manufacturing with materials is essential for the aerospace and defense sector, as it enables the development of advanced aircraft and missiles that can fly faster, farther, higher, and safer. Some of the materials that are used in this sector are:
Composites: Composites are materials that are made of two or more different materials that have different properties and are bonded together. Composites can have high strength-to-weight ratios, high stiffness-to-weight ratios, high fatigue resistance, high corrosion resistance, and low thermal expansion. Composites are widely used in aerospace structures such as wings, fuselages, tails, propellers, and rotors.
Ceramics: Ceramics are materials that are made of non-metallic minerals that have been heated and hardened. Ceramics can have high melting points, high hardness, high wear resistance, high thermal stability, and low density. Ceramics are widely used in aerospace engines such as turbine blades, nozzles, combustors, and heat exchangers.
Metals: Metals are materials that are made of metallic elements that have been shaped and alloyed. Metals can have high ductility, high conductivity, high toughness, high elasticity, and high recyclability. Metals are widely used in aerospace components such as fasteners, wires, cables, gears, bearings, and springs.
Automotive and transportation
Manufacturing with materials is vital for the automotive and transportation sector, as it enables the production of efficient, reliable, and safe vehicles and trains. Some of the materials that are used in this sector are:
Plastics: Plastics are materials that are made of synthetic polymers that can be molded or shaped. Plastics can have low weight, low cost, high flexibility, high impact resistance, high corrosion resistance, and high design freedom. Plastics are widely used in automotive parts such as bumpers, dashboards, seats, lights, and mirrors.
Rubber: Rubber is a material that is made of natural or synthetic elastomers that can be stretched or compressed. Rubber can have high elasticity, high friction, high vibration damping, high noise reduction, and high sealing ability. Rubber is widely used in automotive parts such as tires, belts, hoses, gaskets, and mounts.
Glass: Glass is a material that is made of molten silica that has been cooled and solidified. Glass can have high transparency, high strength, high hardness, high thermal insulation, and high chemical resistance. Glass is widely used in automotive parts such as windows, windshields, sunroofs, and headlights.
Biomedical and health care
Manufacturing with materials is crucial for the biomedical and health care sector, as it enables the creation of effective implants and devices that can improve the quality of life and health of patients. Some of the materials that are used in this sector are:
Biomaterials: Biomaterials are materials that are designed to interact with biological systems such as tissues, organs, cells, or molecules. Biomaterials can have biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability, bioresorbability, and biosensing properties. Biomaterials are widely used in biomedical implants and devices such as artificial joints, stents, pacemakers, scaffolds, and sensors.
Nanomaterials: Nanomaterials are materials that have at least one dimension in the nanoscale range (1-100 nanometers). Nanomaterials can have novel physical, chemical, optical, electrical, magnetic, or biological properties that differ from their bulk counterparts. Nanomaterials are widely used in biomedical applications such as drug delivery, diagnosis, imaging, therapy, and regeneration.
Smart materials: Smart materials are materials that can change their properties or behavior in response to external stimuli such as temperature, pressure, electricity, magnetism, light, or chemicals. Smart materials can have self-healing, self-adapting, self-regulating, and self-reporting functions. Smart materials are widely used in biomedical applications such as wound healing, tissue engineering, drug release, and biosensing.
Construction and infrastructure
Manufacturing with materials is important for the construction and infrastructure sector, as it enables the building of durable and resilient structures and systems that can withstand natural and human-made hazards. Some of the materials that are used in this sector are:
Concrete: Concrete is a material that is made of cement, water, sand, gravel, and other additives that have been mixed and hardened. Concrete can have high compressive strength, high durability, high fire resistance, and low maintenance. Concrete is widely used in construction structures such as foundations, walls, floors, columns, beams, and bridges.
Steel: Steel is a material that is made of iron and carbon that have been alloyed and shaped. Steel can have high tensile strength, high ductility, high toughness, high elasticity, and high recyclability. Steel is widely used in construction structures such as frames, trusses, cables, bars, and rods.
Wood: Wood is a material that is made of natural fibers that have been cut and processed. Wood can have low weight, low cost, high flexibility, high thermal insulation, and high aesthetic value. Wood is widely used in construction structures such as roofs, walls, floors, doors, windows, and furniture.
Energy and environment
Manufacturing with materials is essential for the energy and environment sector, as it enables the generation of clean and renewable energy sources and the protection of natural resources and ecosystems. Some of the materials that are used in this sector are:
Solar cells: Solar cells are materials that can convert sunlight into electricity. Solar cells can have high efficiency, low cost, low emission, and high scalability. Solar cells are widely used in energy applications such as solar panels, solar farms, solar lamps, and solar chargers.
Batteries: Batteries are materials that can store and release electrical energy. Batteries can have high capacity, high power, high stability, and high safety. Batteries are widely used in energy applications such as electric vehicles, smart grids, portable devices, and backup systems.
Catalysts: Catalysts are materials that can speed up or alter chemical reactions without being consumed or changed. Catalysts can have high activity, high selectivity, high stability, and low cost. Catalysts are widely used in environmental applications such as pollution control, waste treatment, water purification, and biofuel production.
What are the Future Trends of Manufacturing with Materials?
Manufacturing with materials is a dynamic and evolving field that is constantly influenced by the changing needs and demands of customers and society. Some of the future trends of manufacturing with materials are:
Innovation is the process of creating new or improved products or processes that can meet or exceed the expectations of customers and society. Innovation can be driven by various factors such as market opportunities, customer feedback, technological advances, scientific discoveries, and social challenges. Innovation can lead to the development of new or improved materials that can have novel or enhanced properties and performance; new or improved processes that can increase the efficiency, quality, flexibility, and sustainability of manufacturing; and new or improved products that can offer new or improved functionality, performance, quality, cost, diversity, and sustainability.
Sustainability is the process of meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainability can be achieved by balancing the economic, environmental, and social aspects of manufacturing. Sustainability can involve the use of renewable, biodegradable, recyclable, and environmentally friendly materials; the adoption of clean and green processes that minimize resource consumption, energy expenditure, waste generation, emission release, and environmental impact; the development of products that have reduced life cycle costs, improved life cycle performance, enhanced life cycle functionality, and increased life cycle value; and the engagement of stakeholders that include material suppliers, manufacturers, customers, regulators, researchers, educators, and society.
In conclusion, manufacturing with materials is a concept that emphasizes the role of materials in manufacturing processes and products. Manufacturing with materials can help manufacturers improve their product quality, performance, cost, diversity, and sustainability; meet the needs and demands of customers and society; and cope with the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century.
In this article, we have provided a comprehensive guide on manufacturing with materials. We have explained what manufacturing with materials is, why it is important, how it is done, what are its applications, and what are its future trends. We have also answered some common questions that you may have about manufacturing with materials. We hope that this article has helped you gain a better understanding of manufacturing with materials and how it can benefit your business.
Here are some frequently asked questions about manufacturing with materials:
Q: What is the difference between manufacturing with materials and material engineering?
A: Manufacturing with materials is a concept that emphasizes the role of materials in manufacturing processes and products. Material engineering is a discipline that studies the structure, properties, processing, performance, and applications of materials.
Q: What are some examples of manufacturing with materials software tools?
A: Some examples of manufacturing with materials software tools are:
CES EduPack: CES EduPack is a software tool that helps students and educators learn about materials science and engineering. It provides databases, charts, tools, and resources for material selection, processing, testing, characterization, and performance.
SolidWorks: SolidWorks is a software tool that helps engineers and designers create 3D models of products and systems. It provides features for design, simulation, analysis, optimization, and documentation of products and systems.
ANSYS: ANSYS is a software tool that helps engineers and researchers perform finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of products and systems. It provides features for modeling, meshing, solving, visualizing, and validating products and systems.
Q: What are some examples of manufacturing with materials books?